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Mink Food Acidulant

Sodium Bisulfate Pet and Mink Feed - A Great Combination

Sodium Bisulfate Pet: A Dry Acid for Mink Feed

Jones-Hamilton Co. leads the way in dry acidification research and development for the pet food industry. Recently, mink breeders and mink feed producers recognized sodium bisulfate as cost effective replacement for phosphoric acid in mink feed.

Chemical Classification

Sodium Bisulfate Pet™ is a dry granular acid that easily dissolves in water. Its appearance is similar to table salt, and it is considered non-hazardous by the DOT. Its chemical formula is NaHSO4. In a water solution, it dissociates into sodium ions, hydrogen ions and sulfate ions.

In 1997, sodium bisulfate was approved for use in animal feed. It is classified as a general purpose feed additive under the Association of American Feed Control Officials’ (AAFCO) Feed Ingredient Definition. In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) categorized sodium bisulfate as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) for use in human foods.

Acid Strength Comparison

For most applications, sodium bisulfate can replace 75% phosphoric acid on a pound for pound basis. Since sodium bisulfate is less expensive than phosphoric acid, its use will yield savings immediately.

Feline and Mink Urine Acidification with Sodium Bisulfate Pet™

Formation of struvite crystals in the lower urinary tract is a common cause of lower urinary tract diseases. In some cases, complete obstruction occurs. Urine acidification can dissolve existing crystals and prevent the formation of new crystals. A urine pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is an acceptable range to prevent the formation of crystals. Studies prove that sodium bisulfate significantly lowers feline and mink urine pH.

MSU Mink Study Final Report

pH Reduction

Sodium Bisulfate - Pet® for pH reduction:

Sodium bisulfate is a dry granular product with an acid strength slightly stronger than phosphoric acid. Because of its strong acid strength it works well for lowering pH. A low-pH environment controls the microbial growth of pet food products that contain sufficient moisture, preserving it for maximum shelf life.

Compared to other pet food acidifiers, Sodium Bisulfate - Pet® is the lowest cost and safest available. It is considered non-hazardous by DOT, therefore not regulated. OSHA identifies it as an irritant and the NFPA hazard rating is 1-0-1. It's dry, granular state means that, if spilled it can be swept up, eliminating the environmental headaches associated with liquid acids.

Urine Acidification

Feline Urine Acidification with Sodium Bisulfate Pet™

Formation of struvite crystals in the lower urinary tract is a common cause of lower urinary tract diseases. In some cases, complete obstruction occurs. Urine acidification can dissolve existing crystals and prevent the formation of new crystals. A urine pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is an acceptable range to prevent the formation of crystals. Studies prove that sodium bisulfate significantly lowers feline urine pH.14 The mode by which it affects urine pH is twofold. The cation-anion balance of the diet affects urine pH of healthy cats.2 The more negative the balance, the greater the acidifying potential of the diet. Sodium bisulfate has a cation-anion balance of -1 which causes the urine to be acidified. Compounds that result in the absorption of hydrogen ions produce acidic urine.6 The addition of sodium bisulfate to the diet results in the absorption of hydrogen ions therefore lowering urine pH.

Urine Acidification Research Results-

Summit Ridge Farms – 1998

In 1998, a urine pH study was conducted at Summit Ridge Farms, Susquehanna, PA. Ten adult cats were placed on a diet that contained 0.9% sodium bisulfate for seven days. On the seventh day urine samples were obtained by cystocentesis. The test was performed in triplicate with the following results: The urine pH of the diets that contained sodium bisulfate were significantly lower than the control diet.

University of Illinois – 2002

A 2002 study at the University of Illinois evaluated sodium bisulfate as a urinary tract acidifier for cats. Dr. George Fahey, Chris Grieshop and Julie Spears designed and conducted a study comparing the effectiveness and duration of sodium bisulfate and phosphoric acid for lowering urinary pH. Eighteen cats were utilized in the study that covered a four week time period. A basal urine pH was determined for a commercially available diet. After meal consumption, urine pH rose as high as 6.89 and remained above the recommended level of 6.5 for 8 hours.

When pH rises above 6.5, struvite uroliths can form. Three test diets containing sodium bisulfate and three containing phosphoric acid were made where the only difference between the diets was the acidifier added and the concentration. Cats were acclimated to the test diets for 6 days. On day 7 urine samples were collected at 0, 4, and 8 hours post-feeding via cystocentesis. For all of the test diets, urine pH remained in the range that prevents struvite formation, between 6.0 and 6.5. They concluded that sodium bisulfate and phosphoric acid generally behave in similar fashion when incorporated into a dietary matrix formulated for cats.

Urinary Tract Health Update 2016

Reduce the risk of urinary tract disease from struvite and calcium oxalate stones with sodium bisulfate:

A Healthy Alternative

Struvite stones (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were the most common urolith in cats during the 1980s and has recently returned to being the most prevalent (Osborne et al. 2009). Lowering urine pH, reducing levels of dietary magnesium and phosphorus, and increasing urine volume can help control the formation of struvite. Sodium bisulfate eectively lowers urine pH, does not add phosphorus to the diet, and helps promote increased water consumption, making it a healthy alternative to reduce the risk of urinary tract disease.

DOWNLOAD PDF UPDATE TO READ MORE

References
2. Buffington, C.A., 1999. Effects of Diet on Lower Urinary Tract Disorders in Cats. Petfood Industry, Nov.Dec. 1999: 57-63.
5. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 1997-1998. 78th edition, CRC Press Inc.
6. Izquierdo, J.V., et al, 1991. Effect of Various Acidifying Agents on Urine pH and Acid-Base Balance in Adult Cats. J Nutr 121:S89-S90.
8. Lewis, et al, 1987. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 3rd edition. Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA.

SBS Pet™

Sodium Bisulfate - PET® is a natural acidifier for the petfood industry. Uses include feline urine acidification and pH reduction/preservation of soft treats and liquid digestibles. Research also indicates that it can control salmonella contamination. Benefits include low cost, effective pH reduction, no impact on calcium/phosphorus ratio, and improved employee safety.

Sodium Bisulfate – Pet® is a dry granular product with an acid strength slightly stronger than phosphoric acid. It is listed as a General Purpose Feed Additive in the AAFCO official publication under 87.5 (additional special purpose products).

Companion Animal Acidulant

Sodium Bisulfate Pet: The Leader in Dry Acidification

Jones-Hamilton Co. leads the way in dry acidification research and development for the pet food industry. We strive to develop partnerships with our customers to encourage continuous research, cost reduction and manufacturing flexibility.

Chemical Classification

Sodium Bisulfate Pet™ is a dry granular acid that easily dissolves in water. Its chemical formula is NaHSO4. In a water solution, it dissociates into sodium ions, hydrogen ions and sulfate ions.

In 1997 sodium bisulfate was approved for use in animal feed. It is classified as a general purpose feed additive under the Association of American Feed Control Officials’ (AAFCO) Feed Ingredient Definition. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) categorized sodium bisulfate as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) for use in human foods.

Acid Strength Comparison

Acid strength is denoted by pKa value. The lower the pKa value the stronger the acid. The pKa value indicates the ease at which the hydrogen ion dissociates. Since pH is a measurement of hydrogen ion concentration, acids with a low pKa value will do a better job of lowering pH.

For pH applications below 3.6, less Sodium Bisulfate Pet™ is required to lower pH than most commonly used acids, including phosphoric acid. This provides for cost savings in a food, digest, treat, slurry or any low pH application.

Palatability

Research shows that cats tend to prefer food with an acid pH over neutral or alkaline foods.8 This would account for the use of acids in animal digestibles and palatability enhancers. To determine the effects of sodium bisulfate on palatability in cat food, a major U.S. pet food manufacturer performed a standard two-bowl palatability test utilizing twenty cats for two days at an independent animal testingfacility.14 A typical chicken-and-rice-based extruded cat food containing either 0.9% sodium bisulfate or 0.8% phosphoric acid was tested.

First choice preference and total consumption were monitored. Data demonstrated a numerical trend toward the diet containing sodium bisulfate in both observations. The sodium bisulfate diet was chosen 2.25:1 over the phosphoric acid diet and had a 1.42:1 consumption ratio.

Palatability tests on animals generate information on preference and amount consumed, however, they do not tell specifics about the taste.

Nutritional Issues
Calcium / Phosphorus Ratio

Sodium bisulfate acidifies the diet and improves palatability without affecting the calcium/phosphorus ratio. The ideal ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the diet is 1:1. If the ratio is too high it can impair phosphorus absorption.7 If it is too low it can lead to many nutritional problems from calcium deficiency–including bone loss.

Sodium

Sodium is an essential part of a cat’s diet. Recent studies indicate that cats have a higher sodium requirement for maintenance than the value of 0.5 g/kg diet proposed by the National Research Council (1986). A minimal sodium requirement of 0.8 g/kg diet has been proposed for maintenance of adult cats.15 Sodium deficient cats can exhibit anorexia, weight loss, hyponatriuria and a negative sodium balance. The addition of sodium bisulfate to the diet may contribute to meeting the higher sodium requirement.

Sulfate

  • Inorganic sulfate is an essential electrolyte required by all organisms for life.9
  • It is involved in detoxification via sulfation.10,11
  • It is required for cell matrix synthesis and maintenance of cell membranes.3,4
  • It is involved in the formation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, major components of cartilage.3,4
  • It is involved in the formation of cerebroside sulfate, a constituent in the myelin membranes of the brain.3,4
  • Sulfate conjugation serves a role in the biosynthetic pathway for the production of steroids, neurotransmitters and bile agents.12

Stability

Sodium Bisulfate Pet™ assists with stabilizing your pet food formulation because of its ability to quickly lower pH with relatively low addition rates. Sodium bisulfate is currently used in pet food, soft treats and digestibles for pH reduction and stability.

Benefits

  • Price Competitive
  • Effective Urine Acidification
  • Improved Palatability
  • pH Reduction/Stability
  • Nutritional Justification
  • No Effect on Ca/P Ratio
  • Can Use Existing Ingredient Equipment
  • Safe Material Handling
  • Low Addition Rate

References
3. Demeio R.  Sulfate Activation and Transfer. In: Metabolic Pathways, edited by Greenberg D. New York:  Academic, 1975, p. 287-357.
4. Dietrich C, Samapio L, Toledo O, and Cassaro C. Cell Recognition and Adhesiveness: A Possible Biological Role for the Sulfated Mucopolysaccharides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 75: 329-336, 1977.
7. Kienzle, E., et al, 1998. Investigation on Phosphorus Requirements of Adult Cats. JNutr 128: 2598S-2600S.
9. Markovich D. Physiology-Research; Sulfates-Physiological Aspects; Biological Transport, Active-Regulation Human Anatomy & Physiology; Chemicals & Allied Products Industry; Biology. In: Physiological Reviews, p. 1, 2001.
10. Mulder GJ. Sulfate availability in vivo. In: Sulfation of Drugs and Related Com-pounds, edited by Mulder GJ. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1981, p. 32-52.
11. MULDER GJ. Sulfation in vivo and inisolated cell preparations. In: Sulfation of Drugs and Related Compounds, edited by Mulder GJ. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1981, p. 131-186.
12. Mulder GJ and Jakoby WB. Sulfation. In: Conjugation Reactions in Drug Metabolism: An Integrated Approach: Substrates, Co-substrates, Enzymes and Their Interactions In Viva and In Vitro, edited by Mulder GJ. London: Taylor and Francis, 1990, p. 107-161.
14. Summit Ridge Farms, 1998. Effects of Sodium Bisulfate on Palatability, Susquehanna, PA, USA.
15. Yu, S. and Morris, J., 1999. Sodium Requirement of Adult Cats for Maintenance Based on Plasma Aldosterone Concentration. J N

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